Employment and Wages, Annual Averages 2001
The annual bulletin Employment and Wages contains employment and
wage data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program
aggregated by State and industry. The latest bulletin can be ordered from the U.S.
Government Printing Office.
The data contained in this bulletin represent the
complete count of employment and wages for workers covered by unemployment
insurance programs during 2001 in the 50 States, the District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. These data are the product of a
Federal-State cooperative program known as the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW) program. State Employment Security Agencies compile the data from
reports filed by employers each quarter. The Bureau of Labor Statistics
aggregates the data by industry and ownership. These aggregations are
available at the county, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Consolidated
Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA), State, and national levels. Only
State- and national-level aggregates appear in the tables in this
publication. A map showing change in employment in large counties appears as
This is the first year in which the QCEW data are produced
based on the North American Industry Classification System, or NAICS. NAICS
is the product of a cooperative effort on the part of the statistical
agencies of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Due to differences in
structure between NAICS and the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
system that was previously used, industry data for 2001 will not be
comparable with the SIC-based data for earlier years.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with
appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. This information
is available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone:
(202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339.
Members of the Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics prepared
this bulletin. They are Michael B. Buso, Amanda Chadwick, Brett J. Creech,
John Dickson, Amber Dodez, Teresa Drugac, James M. Grounds, David R. H.
Hiles, William Kistler, Jay Miller, Michael Murphy, James Rice, Eli
Stoltzfus, and Linda Wohlford of the Division of Administrative Statistics
and Labor Turnover, Richard L. Clayton, Chief. Data were prepared and
processed by Zipora Abzug, Barbara Athey, David Baggett, Noel Cox, Micah
Earl, Patricia Felder, Angelo Figueroa, John Kennedy, Stephen Lashick, Larry
Lie, Leslie Limmer, Sandra Logan, Reuel Paredes, William Plaskie, Carolyn
Raines-Fein, Ana Reyes, Leonard Stockman, Jerry Trach, Pat Walker, Joan
Wyant and William Yowler, in the Division of Business Establishment Systems,
Robert Carlson, Chief.
The Bureau wishes to express its appreciation to employers for their
continued cooperation in providing establishment-level data on the Multiple
Worksite Report (MWR). The State Employment Security Agencies that collect
the data from employers also play a major role in this ongoing program.
Their efforts in verifying, editing, and supplying high quality data to the
Bureau of Labor Statistics are essential to the accuracy of the data in this
This publication presents 2001 annual employment and
wages data as defined under the 2002 North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS). These data pertain to workers covered by State unemployment
insurance (UI) laws and Federal civilian workers covered by the Unemployment
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) program. The data for both private
sector and public sector workers are reported to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS) by the employment security agencies of the 50 States, the
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands as part of the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages program.
In 2001, employers in private industry provided State
Employment Security Agencies with quarterly tax reports on monthly
employment, quarterly total and taxable wages, and contributions for an
average of 109.3 million wage and salary employees in approximately 7.7
million business establishments. Similar reports of monthly employment and
quarterly wages were submitted by the Federal Government for 2.8 million
civilian employees, by State governments for 4.5 million employees, and by
local governments for 13.1 million employees. Covered employment reported by
these sources constituted a virtual census (97.1 percent) of employees on
nonfarm payrolls. The principal exclusions from UI and UCFE coverage are
cited in the appendix, "Characteristics and Uses of the Data,"
which follows the tables.
Data are presented by ownership, industry, and State and
include the average number of establishments, annual average employment,
total wages, and annual and average weekly wages per employee. National
employment and wage totals are published for 11 supersectors, 20 sectors,
and almost all of the 1,179 six-digit NAICS industries. Private sector data
are presented, by State, from the total private ownership level to the
six-digit industry level. State, local, and Federal Government data are
detailed for selected industries.
Beginning with the release of data for 2001, publications
presenting data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program will use
the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS) as the basis for the assignment and tabulation of economic data by
industry. NAICS is the product of a cooperative effort on the part of the
statistical agencies of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Due to
differences in structure between NAICS and the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system that was previously used, industry data for 2001
will not be comparable with the SIC-based data for earlier years.
NAICS uses a production-oriented approach to categorize
economic units. Units with similar production processes are classified in
the same industry. NAICS focuses on how products and services
are created, as opposed to the SIC focus on what is produced. This
approach yields industry groupings that are significantly different from
those produced using the SIC approach.
Data users will be able to work with new NAICS industrial
groupings that better reflect the workings of the U.S. economy. For example,
a new industry sector called Information brings together units which
turn information into a commodity with units which distribute that
commodity. Informations major components are publishing,
broadcasting, telecommunications, information services, and data processing.
Under the SIC system, these units were spread across the manufacturing,
communications, business services, and amusement services groups. Another
new sector of interest is Professional and Technical Services. This
sector consists of establishments engaged in activities to which human
capital is the major input.
Users interested in more information about NAICS can
access the BLS Web page at www.bls.gov/bls/NAICS.htm
and the U.S. Census Bureau Web page at www.census.gov/epcd/www/naics.html.
The NAICS 2002 manual may be obtained by accessing the National Technical
Information Service (NTIS) Web page at www.ntis.gov/.
Characteristics and uses of the data
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) compiled the data in this
publication as part of the operations of its Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW)
program. The data are derived from the quarterly tax reports submitted to
State Employment Security Agencies by employers subject to State
unemployment insurance (UI) laws and from Federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) program. Each
quarter, State agencies edit and process the data and send the information
to BLS in Washington, DC.
Initially, the Federal Unemployment Insurance Tax Act
(1938) applied only to firms employing at least 8 persons for a minimum of
20 weeks in a calendar year and excluded certain categories of workers.
Amendments to Title XV of the Social Security Actthe program of
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employeesextended coverage to
Federal civilian employees effective January 1, 1955, and to workers in
firms employing from four to seven workers effective January 1, 1956.
Federal legislation, effective January 1, 1972, extended
coverage of State unemployment insurance systems to firms employing 1 worker
or more in 28 States and expanded some of the statutory coverage provisions.
The remaining States had previously extended coverage to these small
employers. The 1972 legislation also brought coverage to employees of State
hospitals, colleges, and universities.
The Federal Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1976
incorporated major changes in State unemployment insurance laws effective
January 1, 1978. Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA), States
expanded coverage to include nearly all remaining State and local government
employees, employees of nonprofit elementary and secondary schools, and
certain domestic workers. Some States began implementing the amendments as
early as 1976. The law also brought the Virgin Islands under the UI system.
The 1976 amendments covered agricultural labor if
performed for an employer who, in any calendar quarter in the current or
preceding calendar year, paid cash remuneration of $20,000 or more for
individuals employed in agricultural labor. The 1976 amendments also apply
to employers who, on each of some 20 days in 20 different weeks during the
current or preceding calendar year, employed at least 10 individuals in
Under a 1981 Supreme Court ruling, schools affiliated
with religious organizations are not required to be covered under the UI
system. Many of these schools, however, continue to cover their employees on
a voluntary basis. Special provisions for railroad workers are made through
the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act. Data for workers covered under the
Railroad Retirement Board and for those covered under Unemployment
Compensation for Ex-servicemen (UCX) programs are excluded from the tables
in this publication.
Comparisons of data from one State to another should take
into consideration the differences in UI laws between States. In addition,
when UI-covered private industry employment data are compared directly with
other employment series, the coverage exclusions should be taken into
Excluded from private sector coverage in 2001 were
Number (in millions)
Wage and salary agricultural workers
Self-employed nonagricultural workers
Unpaid family workers
State and local government workers
Certain types of nonprofit employers, such as religious organizations, are
given a choice of coverage or exclusion in a number of States. Workers in these
organizations are, therefore, reported to a limited degree. Details on coverage
laws are provided in Comparison of State Unemployment Insurance Laws,
available upon request from the Employment and Training Administration of the
U.S. Department of Labor.
Employment and wage data developed in the QCEW program
have been classified by industry since 1938. An industrial code is assigned
to each establishment by the State agency, based on a description provided
by the employer on a questionnaire. If a private or government employer
conducts different activities at various establishments or installations,
separate industrial codes are assigned, to the extent possible, to each
The data presented in this bulletin are classified in
accordance with the 2002 North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS). The NAICS manual defines:
- 20 sectors
- 100 subsectors
- 317 four-digit industry groups
- 725 five-digit NAICS industries
- 1,179 six-digit industries.
BLS has extended the NAICS coding upwards, into two
domains and 11 supersectors. Additionally, BLS has extended NAICS downward
in subsector 238, Specialty trade contractors, dividing the 19
industries into residential and nonresidential categories.
BLS files also include totals for unclassified records at
each NAICS level of aggregation. Unclassified is its own supersector
under the service-producing domain.
BLS publishes NAICS industry data under the principle
that, so long as there is additional detail to be gained by publishing the
next lower level, it will do so. This principle of "congruent
data" means that BLS will publish all data to the six-digit industry
level if there are two or more six-digit industries. If there is only one
such industry, BLS publishes only the five-digit NAICS industry level.
Likewise, if there is only one six-digit industry and one five-digit NAICS
industry under a four-digit industry group, BLS will publish only the
four-digit industry group. At this time, there are 7 four-digit industry
groups that roll up to the three-digit subsector level, 68 five-digit NAICS
industries that roll up to the four-digit industry group level, and 415
six-digit industries that roll up to the five-digit NAICS industry level.
Additionally, there are two six-digit industries that
have a significant last digit of "0." These are Commercial
lithographic printing, NAICS 323110; and Electromedical apparatus
manufacturing, NAICS 334510. Both of the five-digit NAICS industries
have 10 six-digit industries under them. Thus, NAICS codes should not be
padded with zeroes.
To ensure the highest possible quality of data, State Employment Security
Agencies verify and update, if necessary, the NAICS, location, and ownership
classifications of all establishments on a 3-year cycle. Government units in
the public administration sector, however, are verified less frequently.
Each year, changes in establishment classification codes resulting from the
verification process are introduced with the data reported for the first
Indian Tribal Data
Effective January 2001, the QCEW program began assigning
Indian Tribal Councils and related establishments to local government
ownership. This BLS action was in response to a change in Federal law
dealing with the way Indian Tribes are treated under FUTA. This law requires
federally recognized Indian Tribes to be treated similarly to State and
local governments. In the past, the QCEW program coded Indian Tribal Councils
and related establishments in the private sector.
As a result of the new law, QCEW data will reflect significant shifts in
employment and wages between the private sector and local government from
2000 to 2001. BLS incorporated this change in first-quarter 2001 data
because of the immediate effectiveness of the law, signed December 21, 2000.
Data will also reflect industry changes. In addition to the change to local
government, the industry codes of federally recognized Indian Tribal
Councils were changed. Those accounts previously assigned to civic and
social organizations were assigned to tribal governments. There were no
required industry changes for related establishments owned by these Tribal
Councils. These tribal business establishments continued to be coded
according to the nature of their economic activity.
In general, QCEW monthly employment data represent the
number of covered workers who worked during, or received pay for, the pay
period that included the 12th day of the month. Virtually all workers are
reported in the State in which their jobs are physically located.
Covered private industry employment includes most
corporate officials, executives, supervisory personnel, professionals,
clerical workers, wage earners, piece workers, and part-time workers. It
excludes proprietors, the unincorporated self-employed, unpaid family
members, and certain farm and domestic workers.
Persons on paid sick leave, paid holiday, paid vacation,
and the like are included. Persons on the payroll of more than one firm
during the period are counted by each UI-subject employer if they meet the
employment definition noted above. Workers are counted even though, in the
latter months of the year, their wages may not be subject to unemployment
insurance tax. The employment count excludes workers who earned no wages
during the entire applicable pay period because of work stoppages, temporary
layoffs, illness, or unpaid vacations.
Employment data reported for Federal civilian employees
are a byproduct of the operations of State Employment Security Agencies in
administering the provisions of Title XV of the Social Security Actthe
program of Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees. Federal
employment data are based on reports of monthly employment and quarterly
wages submitted each quarter to State agencies for all Federal installations
with employees covered by the Act, except for certain national security
agencies, which are omitted for security reasons.
Employment of all Federal agencies for any given month is based on the
number of persons who worked during or received pay for the pay period that
included the 12th of the month.
An establishment is an economic unit, such as a farm,
mine, factory, or store, that produces goods or provides services. It is
typically at a single physical location and engaged in one, or predominantly
one, type of economic activity for which a single industrial classification
may be applied. Occasionally, a single physical location encompasses two or
more distinct and significant activities. Each activity is reported as a
separate establishment if separate records are kept, and the various
activities are classified under different NAICS industries.
Most employers have only one establishment; thus, the
establishment is the predominant reporting unit or statistical entity for
reporting employment and wages data. Most employers who operate more than
one establishment in a State file a Multiple Worksite Report (MWR) each
quarter, in addition to their quarterly UI report. The MWR form is used to
collect separate employment and wage data for each of the employers
establishments, which are not detailed on the UI report. Some very small
multiestablishment employers do not file a MWR. When the total employment in
an employers secondary establishments (all establishments other than the
largest) is 10 or fewer, the employer generally will file a consolidated
report for all establishments. Also, some employers either cannot or will
not report at the establishment level and thus aggregate establishments into
one consolidated unit, or possibly several units, though not at the
Prior to 1991, employers provided covered employment and
wages data on a "reporting unit" basis. Reporting unit data
typically provided detail only for different county locations or industrial
operations within a State. Nonstandard forms, similar in concept to the MWR
and called the Statistical Supplement, were used by States to collect these
county industry data. Although reporting units were, for the most part,
individual establishments, employers could provide a summary of their
employment and wages data for multiple establishments within a county that
were conducting the same type of industrial activity. For example, a
fast-food business might have submitted a single report that covered all its
operations within a county prior to 1991; on the MWR, the employer reports
employment and wages data for each individual location.
For government, the reporting unit is the installation: a
single location at which a department, agency, or other government body has
civilian employees. Federal agencies follow slightly different criteria than
do private employers when breaking down their reports by installation. They
are permitted to combine as a single statewide unit (1) all installations
with 10 workers or fewer and (2) all installations that have a combined
total in the State of fewer than 50 workers. Also, when there are fewer than
25 workers in all secondary installations in a State, the secondary
installations may be combined and reported with the major installation.
Lastly, if a Federal agency has fewer than five employees in a State, the
agency headquarters office (regional office, district office) serving each
State may consolidate the employment and wages data for that State with the
data reported to the State in which the headquarters is located. As a result
of these reporting rules, the number of reporting units is always larger
than the number of employers (or government agencies) but smaller than the
number of actual establishments (or installations).
Data reported for the first quarter of 2001 were tabulated into size
categories ranging from worksites of very small size to those with 1,000
employees or more. The size category is determined by the establishments
March employment level. It is important to note that data for each
establishment of a multiestablishment firm are tabulated separately into the
appropriate size category. The total employment level of the reporting
multiestablishment firm is not used in the size tabulation.
. Covered employers in most States report
total compensation paid during the calendar quarter, regardless of when the
services were performed. A few State laws, however, specify that wages be
reported for or based on the period during which services are performed
rather than the period during which compensation is paid. Under most State
laws or regulations, wages include bonuses, stock options, the cash value of
meals and lodging, tips and other gratuities, and, in some States, employer
contributions to certain deferred compensation plans such as 401(k) plans.
Covered employer contributions for old-age, survivors,
and disability insurance (OASDI), health insurance, unemployment insurance,
workers compensation, and private pension and welfare funds are not
reported as wages. Employee contributions for the same purposes, however, as
well as money withheld for income taxes, union dues, and so forth, are
reported even though they are deducted from the workers gross pay.
Wages of covered Federal workers represent the gross
amount of all payrolls for all pay periods ending within the quarter. This
includes cash allowances, the cash equivalent of any type of remuneration,
severance pay, withholding taxes, and retirement deductions. Federal
employee remuneration generally covers the same types of services as does
remuneration for workers in private industry. Depending on the method (cash
or accrual basis) used by the Federal agency in preparing its quarterly
summary balance, the gross amount of payrolls is either paid or payable.
. Average annual wages per employee for
any given industry are computed by dividing total annual wages by annual
average employment. A further division by 52 yields average weekly wages per
employee. Annual pay data only approximate annual earnings because an
individual may not be employed by the same employer all year or may work for
more than one employer at a time.
Average weekly or annual pay is affected by the ratio of
full-time to part-time workers, as well as by the numbers of individuals in
high-paying and low-paying occupations. When comparing average pay levels
between States and industries, data users should take these factors into
consideration. For example, industries characterized by high proportions of
part-time workers will show average wage levels appreciably less than the
weekly pay levels of regular full-time employees in these industries. The
opposite is true of industries with low proportions of part-time workers, or
industries that typically schedule heavy weekend and overtime work. Average
wage data also may be influenced by work stoppages, labor turnover,
retroactive payments, seasonal factors, and bonus payments.
In accordance with BLS policy, data reported to the agency in confidence are
not published and are used only for specified statistical purposes. BLS
withholds publication of UI-covered employment and wage data for any industry
level when necessary to protect the identity of cooperating employers. Totals at
the industry level for the States and the Nation include the nondisclosable data
suppressed within the detailed tables. However, these totals cannot be used to
reveal the suppressed data.
To reduce the effect of data excluded because of late reporting by covered
private and government employers, State agencies impute employment and wages for
such employers and include them in each quarterly report. Corrections to data
that may be entered after a report is filed will include replacement of
imputations with reported data to the extent possible. Imputations are
calculated at the individual establishment level, normally using historical data
reported by the employer. Sometimes, trends reported by employers in the same
industry or information obtained from other sources also are used. If a report
remains delinquent for more than one quarter and research shows that it is still
active, the data for the establishment will again be imputed.
Current Employment Statistics program.
BLS and the State Employment Security Agencies cooperate in the operation of
the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. In this program, the State
agencies are responsible for preparing current employment estimates for the
States and for many metropolitan labor market areas, while BLS is
responsible for monthly employment estimates for the Nation. CES estimates
of employment, average weekly and hourly earnings, and average weekly hours
are derived from an employer survey of approximately 300,000 nonfarm
establishments, selected primarily from the QCEW administrative records of
UI-covered employers. The national and State industry CES estimates are then
benchmarked annually to the QCEW employment data. Supplemental sources are
used in benchmarking industries that have noncovered workers.
Current Population Survey. The Current
Population Survey (CPS) is conducted monthly for BLS by the U.S. Census Bureau.
CPS employment data are estimated from a survey of about 60,000 U.S. households,
while QCEW employment data are based on a universe of 8.0 million U.S. covered
employer establishments. The CPS counts employed persons, whereas the QCEW
program counts encumbered jobs during the reporting period. Consequently, the
CPS includes those persons "with a job but not at work" who earn no
wagesfor example, workers on extended unpaid leaves of absence. The QCEW data,
on the other hand, exclude unpaid workers. The QCEW data count separately each
job held by multiple jobholders. The CPS counts such workers once, in the job at
which they worked the greatest number of hours. The CPS counts employed persons
at their place of residence; the QCEW program counts jobs at the place of work.
The CPS also differs from the QCEW program in that it includes self-employed
persons, unpaid family workers employed 15 hours or more during the survey
period, and a greater proportion of agricultural and domestic workers. The CPS
data exclude persons under age 16, while the QCEW program counts all covered
workers regardless of age.
Office of Personnel Management data.
The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) publishes a statistical series on
Federal employment and payrolls with information on employing agencies, types of
positions and appointments, and characteristics of employees. Data on Federal
employment covered by the UCFE series provide industry, local area, and monthly
employment detail not available in the OPM series. These detailed UCFE data are
not published, but are available from BLS upon request.
Both the UCFE and the OPM data exclude members of the
Armed Forces, temporary emergency workers employed to cope with
catastrophes, and officers and crew members of some U.S. vessels. The UCFE
and the OPM data differ in coverage of workers. For example, the UCFE, but
not the OPM, includes Department of Defense workers paid from
nonappropriated funds, employees of county agricultural stabilization and
conservation committees, State and area marketing committees, and the
Agricultural Extension Service. The OPM, but not the UCFE, includes workers
who are not U.S. citizens and who are employed outside the United States and
its territories; workers paid on a contract or fee basis; paid patients or
inmates of Federal homes, hospitals, or institutions; and student employees
of Federal hospitals, clinics, and laboratories.
The two programs also differ in the payroll reference period. UCFE
employment data relate to the payroll period that includes the 12th day of
the month. OPM data, however, relate to persons employed on the last workday
of the month, plus all intermittent employees.
. Covered employment data collected through the QCEW
program differ from employment data published in the Census Bureaus County
(CBP) in the following major areas:
CBP data are tabulated based on the 1997 NAICS, with
some exceptions; QCEW data are tabulated based on the 2002 NAICS.
CBP data exclude auxiliary establishments (except
corporate, subsidiary, and regional managing offices) from
"operating" establishment data and include data for auxiliary
establishments in a separate NAICS sector. QCEW employment, on the other
hand, includes data for these establishments at the six-digit industry
CBP excludes crop and animal production; U.S. Postal
Service; pension, health, welfare, and vacation funds; trusts, estates,
and agency accounts; private households; and public administration.
These are included in QCEW data.
CBP excludes most government employees. Most of these workers are included in QCEW employment.
The QCEW employment and wages data constitute the most
complete set of monthly employment and quarterly wage information by
six-digit industry at the national, State, CMSA, MSA, and county levels.
They have broad economic significance for the evaluation of labor market
trends and major industry developments, for time series analyses, and for
The Bureau of Economic
Analysis of the U.S. Department of Commerce uses QCEW data as a base for
developing the wage and salary component of personal income. QCEW data
accounted for approximately 57 percent of personal income in 2001.
QCEW data are used by businesses and by public and private
research organizations as one of the best sources of detailed employment and
wage statistics for economic forecasting, transportation planning, industry
and regional analysis, impact studies, and other uses.
The QCEW program provides data necessary to both the Employment
and Training Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor and the State
Employment Security Agencies for use in administering the employment
security program. The data accurately reflect the extent of coverage of the
State unemployment insurance laws and are used to measure UI revenues;
national, State, and local area employment; and total and UI-taxable wage
trends. The information is used as an input for actuarial studies,
determination of employer UI tax experience ratings, and UI benefit levels.
Research using QCEW data helps ensure the solvency of the unemployment
insurance trust funds. The QCEW data also are used to compute State and
national insured unemployment rates for workers covered by UI programs.
The QCEW data also are important for a variety of other BLS programs. A
quarterly file containing employer name and address information is created
from QCEW administrative records of UI-covered employers, and serves as a
sampling frame for BLS establishment-based surveys such as the National
Compensation Survey, the Current Employment Statistics program, and the
Occupational Employment Statistics survey. The data also serve, for example,
as the basic source of benchmark information for employment by industry and
by size of establishment in the Current Employment Statistics program, the
Occupational Safety and Health Statistics survey, and the Occupational
Employment Statistics survey.
Prior editions of Employment and Wages are out of
print, but file copies may be examined at the BLS Washington office and at
Federal Depository Libraries. County-level and historical machine-readable
data are available from the BLS Washington office. The charge for this
service varies according to the complexity and volume of the request. Please
request data by mail from the Office of Employment and Unemployment
Statistics, Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, Room
4840, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC
20212. You may also contact us by email;
the telephone number is (202) 691-6567. The request should include the name
and telephone number of an individual whom BLS may contact if necessary.
Most State Employment Security Agencies have QCEW
employment and wage data for both the private and government sectors by
county and for major labor market areas. Requests for these detailed data
should be made directly to State agencies (listed on the inside back cover
of this publication). Data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands also are
available and may be obtained from the employment security agencies in those
Last Modified Date: March 31, 2008